discrete soul: "whereas each human individual has a yega (designation of the soul among the Koyukon Indians) of its own, in animals and things these is one yega for each species, but not for each individual." Fr. J. Jetté, "Riddles of the Ten'a Indians." Anthropos 8, 1913.

Bestial Soul: In the analogue of man confronting beast and relating to it we have, while remaining man, taken on beasthood and now see our former selves as strange, as from the outside." R. Willis, Man and Beast. London, 1974.

we might recognize: G. Semper, The Four Elements of Architecture and Other Writings. New York, 1989.

because he walked: A. Ginsberg. From, "Death News."

had we been captured: "Caged like an animal, reduced to a condition humanity imposes at will upon the animal world; you had never noticed it before, never objected, rarely pitied even. And now you are this. And the animal within you, the final self, the basic kernel at the center of being, panics." K. Millett, The Politics of Cruelty. New York, 1994.

only to see: A. Pizarnik. From, "Much Further On."

an 'ability to return: S. Tigerman, "The Measure of Architecture" Threshold Spring 1988.

an at once wondrous: G. Bataille, Lascaux or The Birth of Art. Lausanne, Switzerland, 1955.

hooked beak: G. Bataille, "The 'Old Mole' and the Prefix Sur in the Words Surhomme [Superman] and Surrealist." In, Visions of Excess, Selected Writings, 1927-1939. Minneapolis, 1985.

postulates: J. Cowan, "Wild Stones." Studies in Comparative Religion. Vol 17, Nos.1&2, 1987.

in his angry voice: With the Nuer "lineage-founders are invested ex post facto with honorary twinship, and moreover with the specially memorable kind of twinship that consists in being born twin to an animal." Ibid, Willis.

his man-made cave: "It is surprising how much in common animal and human homes have, basically. In this similarity of subjective organization and of living space arrangements certainly lies one of the closest links between animals and man." Ibid; Hediger, 1955.

vigorously defended: Ibid.

Very impressive: It is all an exhibit; this zoo, the whole world.

we must remember: H. Hediger, Studies of the Psychology and Behaviour of Captive Animals in Zoos and Circuses. New York, 1955.

those who have lived: G. Matoré, L'Espace humain. Paris, 1962.

because of: J.V. Andréae, "Les Noces Chimigues de Christian Rosencreutz. Paris, 1928. Is the situation of the frustrated lion roaring atop the platform any different from the bronze sculpture whose simpering smile never changes?

an undertaking: W. Giegerich, "Killing: Psychology's Platonism and the Missing Link to Reality." Spring 54, 1993.

whose origin: "the animals themselvesCas individual beings possessing power and souls and existing in their collective associations under the protection of the guardian spirit of the speciesCwere probably among the oldest objects of the hunter's veneration; the game spirits and game gods were perhaps the oldest divine figures known to mankind." I. Paulson, "The Animal Guardian." History of Religions 3 (1964)

is controlled: R. Willis, Man and Beast. London, 1974.

the moment of arrest: K. Millett, The Politics of Cruelty. New York, 1994.


species to whom: In the background of the African Plains exhibit stands a Hyatt Hotel.

two questions here: Hediger; Ibid, 1955.

congruent with ourselves: B. Lopez, Parabola. Spring 1983.

articulated only: I have forgotten to look him in the eye without expecting meaning.


The way we had come was all we could see
And it crept up on us, embarrassed
That there was so much to tell now, really now.
(John Ashbery. From, "As We Know.")

their surplus: J. Berger, "Ape Theatre." In, Keeping a Rendezvous. New York, 1991.

until recently: J.E. Pfeiffer, The Creative Explosion. New York, 1982.

some thing higher: The first zoos were pits modeled on bear pits, the animals observed from above. "Look at our usual blueprints, our usual models. They are drawn from above as floor plans; the view is down from the ceiling. The place from which the gods have fled is now where the planner sits." J. Hillman, "Ceiling." In, Thomas Moore, ed., A Blue Fire: Selected Writings by James Hillman. New York, 1989.

seals cast halos: One day Sadna, living with her father, was kidnapped by a petrel in human form. Her father rescued her, but the petrel pursued them, and caused a storm that threatened to sink the kayak. In his fear, Sadna's father threw her overboard. She clung to the boat, so her father chapped off her hands, which became the seal and the walrus. Then Sadna then sank to the bottom of the sea, where she reigns as "Mother of sea animals." (Eskimo myth)

polar bears stretch: I love the bears/with their silence./They are like me when it rains,/imagining it is March/and about to wake up/with everything changed. R. Pflum. From, "The Silence of Bears."

Come on: "It is as though we had told the polar bear his solitary life and the implacable hunger that made him a persistent and resourceful hunter had no meaning for us." Ibid, Lopez.

lions pace: "Zoo animals, for instance, who are medically well cared for, well fed and protected from the elements yet may show bizarre behaviour patterns such as pacing backwards and forwards, bobbing up and down, masturbation, self-mutilation and so on." M.S. Dawkins, Animal Suffering. London, 1980.

the success or failure: J. Nollman, Animal Dreaming. New York, 1987.

the animal does not feel: H. Hediger, Man and Animal in the Zoo. New York, 1969.

the third century: J.R. Luoma, A Crowded Ark. Boston, 1987.

own condemned selves: "If indeed poets experience an affinity for the world of walls, bars, and locks, it is because it reflects the images of their own condition." V. Brombert, The Romantic Prison. Princeton, NJ, 1978.


as one of shifting: A. Betsky, "Lebbeus Woods: Materialist Experiments and Experiences." Architecture and Urbanism. August, 1991. ("Both" refers to the architects Lebbeus Woods and Giovanni Battista Piranesi.)

flying circuses: "In the wonderful age of the mythological beginnings, the offspring of the original eight elephants had wings. Like clouds, they freely roamed about the sky.
   "But...inadvertently, these blithe, winged elephants alighted on the branch of a giant tree north of the Himalayas. An ascetic named Dirghatapas, 'Long Austerity,' had his seat beneath it and was at that moment teachingCwhen the heavy arm of the tree, unable to support the load, broke and fell upon the pupils' heads. A number were killed, but the elephants, not worrying in the least, nimbly caught themselves in flight and settled on another bough....The angry saint cursed them roundly. Henceforth they and their whole race were deprived of their wings, and remained on the ground subservient to man." H. Zimmer, Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization. Princeton, NJ, 1974.

I understood then: M. Proust, Pleasures and Days. New York, 1978.

inside the curl: Two elephants circling a world of bars. No roaming, no range. Asian and African brought together, both wrinkled with the meanders of 10 thousand years. Then the third, their baby, tosses dirt at me, then back over his shoulder. Now we're both clean.

harsh spate of German: Unlike with the concentration camp victims, those few who lived to tell their stories, these captive species cannot write or speak to us. They cannot tell their stories to us. Thus we must bear their witness to our domination of this planet, and the consequences of this delirium, one of which is the zoo.

glossolalia: In the Garden of Eden, Adam could speak with the animals, and thus knew their names before naming them. They informed him, and he merely repeated what he heard. But we refuse to believe in his animal nature, and so give him credit for the names. For God said he was "human," and he believed this voice, because it sounded so much like his own.

fish as axis mundi: J. Hillman, "The Elephant in The Garden of Eden." Spring 50, 1990.

the Ark that is: The Ark was built to save all the species: we are all pitching in the same boat. But as we toss others overboard, to make room for more of our own, the Ark is slowly being drained of its purpose. Lost, too, are the birds who were charged with scouting ahead for a safe port, having been sacrificed for sport.