"(Arnold) Van Gennep has shown that all rites of transition are marked by three phases: separation, margin (or limen), and aggregation. The first phase of separation comprises symbolic behavior signifying the detachment of the individual or group either from an earlier fixed point in the social structure or a set of cultural conditions (a 'state'); during the intervening liminal period, the state of the individual subject (the 'passenger') is ambiguous; he passes through a realm that has few or none of the attributes of the past or coming state; in the third phrase the passage is consummated." V. Turner, "Betwixt and Between: The Liminal Period in Rites of Passage." In, L.C. Mahdi, S, Froster, and M. Little, Editors, Betwixt & Between: Patterns of Masculine and Feminine Initiation. La Salle, IL., 1987. p.5.

"The mind freed from social constraints can move into the limitless domain of liminal creativity, from which emerge not only monsters but many of the images we call Art." V. Turner, "Process, System, and Symbol: A New Anthrolological Synthesis." Daedalus. Vol 106, No. 3, 1977. p.69.