"Factory farming and modern pet keeping can be seen as two recent, and extreme, extensions of these culturally diverse and historically persistent patterns of animal care. In factory farming, the value of the animal is exclusively determined by its material utility to the farmer, and the animals neither provide nor benefit from nurturing, affectionate interchanges with human beings. In pet keeping, animals have, almost by definition, no material utility and are kept as a vehicle for display of affection, nurturance, and dominance. At both extremes the category of animal, becomes on one hand, robbed of its original significance being reduced to the status of material object, and on the other, reduced by anthropomorphic thinking to a parody of the human." A.H. Katcher and A.M. Beck, "Animal Companions: More Companion Than Animal." In, M.H. Robinson and L. Tiger, Editors, Man & Beast Revisited. Washington, D.C., 1991. pp.265-6.